Nano command for search and replace

I spend most of my time with headless Ubuntu server or Raspbian (a Debian derivatives distro for Raspberry Pi).

So naturally I use ‘nano’ to edit various configurations files and Python Scripts.

Here are several ‘nano’ shortcuts for your references


  • CTRL-W : search text string
  • ALT-W : repeat search
  • ALT-B : Backward search

Search and Replace

  • CTRL-\  search and replace

Cut, Copy and Paste

  • CTRL-K : Cut text
  • CTRL-V : Paste text
  • M-^ or ESc-^ : Copy text

Save and Exit

  • CTRL-O : Save file
  • CTRL-X : Exit nano

Indentation (useful for Python)

  • M-} :  Indent Right
  • M-{ : Indent Left (unindent)


That’s all which I can share for today…


Easyrec – Integrate Recommender Engine in your website – open source

Easyrec is an open source recommender engine which can be trained and customized to provide personalized recommendations using REStful Web Service.

Easyrec exposes its functionality through REST API which provides several interaction types:


  1. view
  2. buy
  3. sendaction


  1. other users also viewed
  2. other users also bought
  3. items rated good by other users
  4. recommendations for user
  5. related items
  6. action history for user

Community Rankings

  1. most viewed items
  2. most bought items
  3. most rated items
  4. best rated items
  5. worst rated items

The list of recommendations is returned in XML and JSON notation to be further processed by your web application.

Easyrec API can be accessed from its main website or could be installed alongside with the web application on your own server. Easyrec require at least Java 1.5 and MySQL server for its functionality.

Download easyrect from:

A Bash script for sending telegram messages in Linux

Would it be nice to be able to receive notification from your Linux system in Telegram?


I’ve come up with a rudimentary bash script which lets you integrate the telegram-cli into your own script which is useful for sending messages or notification within automated process to your Telegram account.

The bash script is very useful when you want to send notification to your Telegram account. Example usage: notifying you instantly whenever a backup has been completed or whenever somebody logged into your system or if there’s a brute-force attempt to log into your SSH. Basically anything that you can imagine!

First Step: Install telegram-cli

The first step is to install the telegram-cli client on your Linux system. You may choose to:

  1. Build it on your own – using source code, or
  2. Install telegram-cli from *.deb (Ubuntu LTS only)

IMPORTANT: Please read on how to initialize and sign-in the telegram-cli and key in the required telegram “CODE” in your phone.

Second Step: Copy script to /usr/local/bin

You may copy this telegram bash script and chmod it to be executed from command line (up to you).

Download the script at:

# telegram-cli bash script r0.1
# change 'to' to your own  Telegram account name
# by =  Mohammad Hafiz bin Ismail  []
# url=

## Replace 'to' with your account name


function show_usage {

 echo "Usage $0 [message]"

if [ $# -lt 1 ]

telegram-cli -W -e "msg $to $1"

IMPORTANT: Do not forget to “chmod a+x” the “” script.
IMPORTANT: Change the “to” variable in the script to match your own Telegram username.

Third Step: Using the script

Using the is easy!

Once you’ve logged in and initialized your telegram-cli application. You only need to execute the “” to send instant messages to your Telegram account!

Just do this

wget -c
cp /usr/local/bin/

Then chmod it, to make it executable,

sudo chmod a+x  /usr/local/bin/

IMPORTANT: Change the “to” variable in the script to match your own Telegram username.

sudo nano /usr/local/bin/

To test your telegram script, just make sure you’ve logged into Telegram and telegram-cli, and have entered the correct activation “CODE”. Read Step 1, if you are unsure.

Then you may try out the script "this is my message"

To send telegram message with timestamp type: "`date -I` : this is a message with timestamp"

What should I do next?

Use your imagination! You can integrate this script in crontab, or put it inside another another bash script or conditional operation, or even launch it from a web application, the potential is limitless.

Happy trying!

Howto install OwnCloud with NGINX in Ubuntu LTS

OwnCloud is a PHP-based Cloud-storage web application for remote storage with file synchronization capabilities.

Step 1
You need to install several packages in order to configure OwnCloud with nginx in your server

sudo apt-get -y install nginx-full php5-fpm php5-sqlite

Step 2: Download Owncloud
Download Owncloud, replace $OWNCLOUD_VER with the latest Owncloud version.

export OWNCLOUD_VER="8.1.0"
cd /var/www/
sudo wget -c${OWNCLOUD-VER}.tar.bz2

Step 3: Extract Owncloud
This will extract owncloud to /var/www/owncloud/

cd /var/www/
tar jxvf owncloud-${OWNCLOUD-VER}.tar.bz2

Step 4: Setup Nginx
You need to setup NGINX

cd /etc/nginx/sites-available
sudo nano -c /etc/nginx/sites-available/owncloud

Step 4a: Setup ‘owncloud’ nginx site

Please change server_name directive to your own ip address or your own domain.
You can also download textfile and upload it directly to your server:

server {
  listen 80;

  # Path to the root of your owncloud installation
  root /var/www/owncloud/;
  # set max upload size
  client_max_body_size 10G;
  fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

  # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header
  gzip off;

  # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
  # This module is currently not supported.
  #pagespeed off;

  rewrite ^/caldav(.*)$ /remote.php/caldav$1 redirect;
  rewrite ^/carddav(.*)$ /remote.php/carddav$1 redirect;
  rewrite ^/webdav(.*)$ /remote.php/webdav$1 redirect;

  index index.php;
  error_page 403 /core/templates/403.php;
  error_page 404 /core/templates/404.php;

  location = /robots.txt {
    allow all;
    log_not_found off;
    access_log off;

  location ~ ^/(?:\.htaccess|data|config|db_structure\.xml|README){
    deny all;

  location / {
   # The following 2 rules are only needed with webfinger
   rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last;
   rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json last;

   rewrite ^/.well-known/carddav /remote.php/carddav/ redirect;
   rewrite ^/.well-known/caldav /remote.php/caldav/ redirect;

   rewrite ^(/core/doc/[^\/]+/)$ $1/index.html;

   try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php;

   location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {
   fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
   include fastcgi_params;
   fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
   fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
	  fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;

   location ~* \.(?:jpg|jpeg|gif|bmp|ico|png|css|js|swf)$ {
       expires 30d;
       # Optional: Don't log access to assets
         access_log off;


Step 4b: Enable ‘owncloud’ settings

cd /etc/nginx/sites-enable/
sudo ln -sf ../sites-available/owncloud .
nginx -t
service nginx restart
service php5-fpm restart

Step 5: Finishing off Owncloud setup

cd /var/www/
mkdir /var/www/owncloud/data
chmod 0770 /var/www/owncloud/data
chmod 0770 /var/www/owncloud/lib/private/
sudo chown -R www-data.www-data /var/www/owncloud

Step 6: Goto the IP-Address or domain name of your owncloud installation

First screen

Welcome to Owncloud

Owncloud File Manager and Settings

What’s Next?

After completing installation you may:

  1. Install Android, iPhone or Desktop client to sync all your files
  2. Install TLS/SSL Certificates to secure your Owncloud connection
  3. Install MariaDB/MySQL for efficient synchronization

Warning: Do not enable Pagespeed and SPDY in OwnCloud

OwnCloud servers does not support PageSpeed and SPDY module, so please disable those extension if its exists within your nginx configuration.

Recommended Owncloud book

How to install NGINX with PageSpeed module in Ubuntu LTS / Debian

UPDATE: You can now install NGINX with PageSpeed in Ubuntu LTS with deb package:

PageSpeed modules are open source modules developed by Google Inc that can perform website optimization to ensure faster site delivery, automatically.

PageSpeed module is not included in NGINX installation in Ubuntu or Debian. So you need to recompile NGINX together with PageSpeed module, to enable its functionality.

You can install NGINX 1.8.0 with PageSpeed for Ubuntu 14.04 LTS here, using dpkg:
or you can compile it from source code using apt-get.

There are several steps to this method, first you need to get the latest nginx stable (or mainline) from PPA (optional)

#this step is optional, only if you want to get the latest Ubuntu version of nginx

sudo apt-get -y install software-properties-common

sudo -s

nginx=stable # use nginx=development for latest development version
add-apt-repository ppa:nginx/$nginx

apt-get update 

apt-get -y upgrade

Then, you’ve to install dpkg-dev, unzip utility and nginx source from apt repository

apt-get -y install dpkg-dev unzip

apt-get install nginx

apt-get source nginx

After that, you need to download PageSpeed module, this instruction is adapted from

**note replace ${NGINX_VERSION} with the version of NGINX available from apt-get, in my case – its “1.8.0”

export NGINX_VERSION=1.8.0

wget -c${NPS_VERSION}

unzip release-${NPS_VERSION}

cd ngx_pagespeed-release-${NPS_VERSION}-beta/

wget -c${NPS_VERSION}.tar.gz

tar -xzvf ${NPS_VERSION}.tar.gz

cd nginx-${NGINX_VERSION}

Install all build dependencies (your configuration may varies, but i keep it within default Ubuntu configuration.

apt-get -y install libpcre3-dev libssl-dev libxslt1-dev libgd-dev libgeoip-dev geoip-bin geoip-database libpam0g-dev zlib1g-dev memcached

Then configure nginx, remember to replace ${NGINX_VERSION} with your current version of NGINX. In my case, its “1.8.0”

cd nginx-${NGINX_VERSION}

./configure  --with-cc-opt='-g -O2 -fPIE -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -Wformat -Werror=format-security -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2' --with-ld-opt='-Wl,-Bsymbolic-functions -fPIE -pie -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now' --prefix=/usr/share/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock --pid-path=/run/ --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/body --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/fastcgi --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/proxy --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/scgi --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/uwsgi --with-debug --with-pcre-jit --with-ipv6 --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_geoip_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_image_filter_module --with-http_spdy_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_xslt_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-auth-pam --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-dav-ext-module --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-echo --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-upstream-fair --add-module=debian/modules/ngx_http_substitutions_filter_module --sbin-path=/usr/local/sbin --add-module=$HOME/ngx_pagespeed-release-${NPS_VERSION}-beta

After that, run make and make install


make install

The newly compiled nginx will be installed in “/usr/local/bin” without overwriting the original binary file.

Create nginx-pagespeed /etc/init.d file

Optionally you may duplicate nginx in init.d, and rename it to nginx-pagespeed, and stop the original nginx server

cp /etc/init.d/nginx /etc/init.d/nginx-pagespeed

sed -i 's|/usr/sbin/nginx|/usr/local/sbin/nginx|g' /etc/init.d/nginx-pagespeed

service nginx stop

You may also enable basic PageSpeed config in /etc/nginx/conf.d/

nano /etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf

And add these basic PageSpeed config

#file /etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf
        pagespeed on;
        pagespeed FetchWithGzip on;

        pagespeed FileCachePath /run/shm/pagespeed_cache;
        pagespeed RewriteLevel CoreFilters;

Save the file, and test nginx config, after that, start nginx-pagespeed service.

/usr/local/sbin/nginx -t

service nginx-pagespeed start

**Note: This instruction has been tested under Ubuntu 14.04 LTS with nginx 1.8.0 from ppa:nginx/stable respository. The LTS is chosen because it has much longer support for server, and nginx 1.8.0 supports both spdy 3.1 and latest PageSpeed.

***Please share any thoughts or opinion or suggested correction if this guide didn’t work for you. Thanks!!

Recommended Reading

Google Nexus 7 running on Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail

Here is the video showing Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail (still in development at this time of writing) running on Nexus 7, a 7.81″ tablet which runs Android Jelly Bean by default.

It is expected that more announcement will be made regarding Ubuntu tablet at the upcoming Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS) in Denmark, which Mark Shuttleworth himself drop a hint that future Ubuntu development will focused on mobile platform. He even encouraged attendees to bring Nexus 7 to the summit.

My Thoughts
Its refreshing to see Ubuntu can be ported on tablets. It open up several opportunities to integrate Ubuntu operating system with mobile platform and together with the possibility of cloud computing, it will be able to unify the way people use their computers in their daily life. However, a new GUI has to be designed in order to make Ubuntu usable and convenient to be used on tablets.

All in all, it is a bold move from Canonical.

How to convert between sqlite2 and sqlite3 database

Here’s a short guide on how to convert between sqlite2 to sqlite3 database file:

sqlite2 /path/to/mysqlite2.db .dump > backupfile
sqlite3 /path/to/mynewsqlite3.db < backupfile

Using the same method, you can convert sqlite3 db to sqlite2 db too!

p/s: Why you need to convert? because embedded device (read: iPhone and Android) only supports sqlite3 database, while PHP 5 by default supports sqlite2 database.

Thus, this method provide a convenient way to convert between the two different version of sqlite db format.

Recommended Reading

Generate EAN,UPC,ISBN barcodes in Ubuntu / Debian Linux

barcode‘ is a utility in Debian GNU/Linux distribution used for generating common 1-D barcode: EAN-13, EAN-8, UPC, ISBN, code93, code128 & codabar.
barcode outputs file in postscript format which can be converted to PDF with the ‘ps2pdf‘ utility


1. Outputs isbn barcode and converts it to PDF file

$  barcode -o -e isbn
$  ps2pdf

2. Outputs EAN-13 barcode

$ barcode -o -e ean

If you are looking for a tool that could generate QR Code, then you can try ‘qrencode