Solving “Connection is encrypted using obsolete cipher suite” warning from Chrome

Here is a how to on how to solve the dreaded warning “Your connection is encrypted using obsolete cipher suit” from Google Chrome.

Firstly the warning had nothing to do with using cheap or self-signed TLS/SSL security certificate, but it has to do with cipher suite used on the server part.


So if you are a system administrator, you can edit the site config to include a more modern cipher.

NGINX Server

Using nginx, add the line containing “ssl_cipers” to the site config.

# /etc/nginx/sites-enable/example.conf 
server {
 listen 443 ssl;
 root /var/www/;

        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;


sudo service nginx restart

Apache HTTP Server

For those who are using Apache HTTP server, you can edit the VirtualHost file from “/etc/apache2/sites-enable/” directory.

<VirtualHost *:443>
    SSLEngine on
    SSLCertificateFile      /path/to/signed_certificate
    SSLCertificateChainFile /path/to/intermediate_certificate
    SSLCertificateKeyFile   /path/to/private/key
    SSLCACertificateFile    /path/to/all_ca_certs

    # Intermediate configuration, tweak to your needs
    SSLProtocol             all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
    SSLHonorCipherOrder     on
    SSLCompression          off

    # OCSP Stapling, only in httpd 2.3.3 and later
    SSLUseStapling          on
    SSLStaplingResponderTimeout 5
    SSLStaplingReturnResponderErrors off
    # On Apache 2.4+, SSLStaplingCache must be set *outside* of the VirtualHost
    SSLStaplingCache        shmcb:/var/run/ocsp(128000)
    # Enable this if your want HSTS (recommended)
    # Header add Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000"

You can restart Apache HTTP server by running

sudo service apache2 restart

How to set Android *.apk mime-type for Nginx web server

Here’s a simple guide on how to add the correct mime-type for Android APK file for Nginx webserver.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/mime.types

In “mime.types” file, add this line within the “types” block

types {
     application/     apk;

Restart nginx server

sudo service nginx restart


Generating TLS/SSL Self Signed Certificate for Nginx in Ubuntu LTS

This post concerns on generating self-signed TLS/SSL certificate for Nginx in Ubuntu LTS and assumes that you’ve configured nginx server with a default site.

Step 1: Generate OpenSSL certificate

sudo mkdir /etc/nginx/ssl
sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.key -out /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.crt

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:US
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:CA
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Palo Alto
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Mypapit LLC
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Billing
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:Mypapit
Email Address []

Step 2: Edit nginx site config

You can edit nginx site config here, replace ‘default’ with your own server config.

sudo nano -c /etc/nginx/sites-enable/default

You will see this server block.

server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;
        root /var/www/;
        index index.html index.htm;


Add additional line (in italic)

server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;

    listen 443 ssl;

        root /var/www/;
      index index.html index.htm;

        ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.crt;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.key;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        add_header Strict-Transport-Security max-age=31536000;


Save file, and restart nginx server

sudo nginx -t
sudo service nginx restart

Test configuration by going to


Bonus: Add HSTS header and Serve only TLS

HSTS header

Install NGINX with PageSpeed using *.deb for Ubuntu LTS (AMD64)

Hello there, I’ve made an easily installable *.deb NGINX package with PageSpeed. The package is made for Ubuntu LTS on AMD64 machine.

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS – nginx 1.8.0 with PageSpeed

  1. nginx-full_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_amd64.deb Full package
  2. nginx-extras_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_amd64.deb Extra package

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS – nginx 1.8.0 with PageSpeed: Other Package

  1. nginx-common_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_all.deb
  2. nginx_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_all.deb
  3. nginx-doc_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_all.deb

Installing nginx-extras or nginx-full is as easy as running this command

sudo dpkg -i nginx-common_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i nginx-full_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_amd64.deb
sudo dpkg -i nginx_1.8.0-1+trusty1-mypapitubuntu4_all.deb

Attention : Once installed, the PageSpeed configuration file can be found in “/etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf”

Verify Installation
To verify whether nginx with pagespeed has been installed, type

nginx -V

Verify Installation with a preinstalled nginx
If you’ve another version of nginx installed on your system, take note that the nginx-pagespeed from *.deb is installed in “/usr/local/bin”

/usr/local/bin/nginx -V

It will output something like this:

nginx version: nginx/1.8.0
built with OpenSSL 1.0.1f 6 Jan 2014
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --with-cc-opt='-g -O2 -fPIE -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -Wformat -Werror=format-security -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2' --with-ld-opt='-Wl,-Bsymbolic-functions -fPIE -pie -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now' --prefix=/usr/share/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock --pid-path=/run/ --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/body --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/fastcgi --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/proxy --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/scgi --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/uwsgi --with-debug --with-pcre-jit --with-ipv6 --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_geoip_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_image_filter_module --with-http_spdy_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_xslt_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --add-module=/home/mypapit/source/nginx-1.8.0-1+trusty1/debian/modules/nginx-auth-pam --add-module=/home/mypapit/source/nginx-1.8.0-1+trusty1/debian/modules/nginx-dav-ext-module --add-module=/home/mypapit/source/nginx-1.8.0-1+trusty1/debian/modules/nginx-echo --add-module=/home/mypapit/source/nginx-1.8.0-1+trusty1/debian/modules/nginx-upstream-fair --add-module=/home/mypapit/source/nginx-1.8.0-1+trusty1/debian/modules/ngx_http_substitutions_filter_module --add-module=/home/mypapit/source/nginx-1.8.0-1+trusty1/debian/modules/ngx_pagespeed-release-

Take note at the bolded text to verify whether pagespeed module has been installed.

Python code: List most popular URL from Apache/NGINX ‘access.log’ file

Found a great Python code snippet for listing the most popular URL from Apache / NGINX ‘access.log’ file. Very practical!

import collections

logfile = open("access.log", "r")


for line in logfile:
        # copy the URLS to an empty list.
        # We get the part between GET and HTTP

counter = collections.Counter(clean_log)

# get the Top 50 most popular URLs
for count in counter.most_common(50):
    print(str(count[1]) + "\t" + str(count[0]))


The code is very handy if you want to find out the most popular URL or pages in your website, crucial information for optimization, IMHO.

How to test if PageSpeed module is running (on NGINX)

You can run a simple test using curl to verify whether the PageSpeed module is running or not on NGINX.

curl -I -X GET {ip addresss | web address}
curl -I -X GET

The output would come out something like this…

You will see “X-Page-Speed” header with its version (in my case its ““)

If it DOESN’T work

There’s two possibilities:

It doesn’t work! First possibility…
There’s possibilities that you NGINX isn’t configured for PageSpeed, in that case, run:

nginx -V

You should should see a list of nginx compiled modules, if PageSpeed support compiled in, ngx_pagespeed-release-{version} should be listed.

Sample output:

If this is the case, then you SHOULD compile nginx PageSpeed module.

It doesn’t work! Second possibility…
Your did not configure PageSpeed module. To configure pagespeed, just create “/etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf” file, and fill it with PageSpeed basic config.

#file /etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf
        pagespeed on;
        pagespeed FetchWithGzip on;

        pagespeed FileCachePath /run/shm/pagespeed_cache;
        pagespeed RewriteLevel CoreFilters;

Save the file and restart nginx http server.

How to install NGINX with PageSpeed module in Ubuntu LTS / Debian

UPDATE: You can now install NGINX with PageSpeed in Ubuntu LTS with deb package:

PageSpeed modules are open source modules developed by Google Inc that can perform website optimization to ensure faster site delivery, automatically.

PageSpeed module is not included in NGINX installation in Ubuntu or Debian. So you need to recompile NGINX together with PageSpeed module, to enable its functionality.

You can install NGINX 1.8.0 with PageSpeed for Ubuntu 14.04 LTS here, using dpkg:
or you can compile it from source code using apt-get.

There are several steps to this method, first you need to get the latest nginx stable (or mainline) from PPA (optional)

#this step is optional, only if you want to get the latest Ubuntu version of nginx

sudo apt-get -y install software-properties-common

sudo -s

nginx=stable # use nginx=development for latest development version
add-apt-repository ppa:nginx/$nginx

apt-get update 

apt-get -y upgrade

Then, you’ve to install dpkg-dev, unzip utility and nginx source from apt repository

apt-get -y install dpkg-dev unzip

apt-get install nginx

apt-get source nginx

After that, you need to download PageSpeed module, this instruction is adapted from

**note replace ${NGINX_VERSION} with the version of NGINX available from apt-get, in my case – its “1.8.0”

export NGINX_VERSION=1.8.0

wget -c${NPS_VERSION}

unzip release-${NPS_VERSION}

cd ngx_pagespeed-release-${NPS_VERSION}-beta/

wget -c${NPS_VERSION}.tar.gz

tar -xzvf ${NPS_VERSION}.tar.gz

cd nginx-${NGINX_VERSION}

Install all build dependencies (your configuration may varies, but i keep it within default Ubuntu configuration.

apt-get -y install libpcre3-dev libssl-dev libxslt1-dev libgd-dev libgeoip-dev geoip-bin geoip-database libpam0g-dev zlib1g-dev memcached

Then configure nginx, remember to replace ${NGINX_VERSION} with your current version of NGINX. In my case, its “1.8.0”

cd nginx-${NGINX_VERSION}

./configure  --with-cc-opt='-g -O2 -fPIE -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -Wformat -Werror=format-security -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2' --with-ld-opt='-Wl,-Bsymbolic-functions -fPIE -pie -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now' --prefix=/usr/share/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock --pid-path=/run/ --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/body --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/fastcgi --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/proxy --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/scgi --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/lib/nginx/uwsgi --with-debug --with-pcre-jit --with-ipv6 --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_geoip_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_image_filter_module --with-http_spdy_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_xslt_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-auth-pam --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-dav-ext-module --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-echo --add-module=debian/modules/nginx-upstream-fair --add-module=debian/modules/ngx_http_substitutions_filter_module --sbin-path=/usr/local/sbin --add-module=$HOME/ngx_pagespeed-release-${NPS_VERSION}-beta

After that, run make and make install


make install

The newly compiled nginx will be installed in “/usr/local/bin” without overwriting the original binary file.

Create nginx-pagespeed /etc/init.d file

Optionally you may duplicate nginx in init.d, and rename it to nginx-pagespeed, and stop the original nginx server

cp /etc/init.d/nginx /etc/init.d/nginx-pagespeed

sed -i 's|/usr/sbin/nginx|/usr/local/sbin/nginx|g' /etc/init.d/nginx-pagespeed

service nginx stop

You may also enable basic PageSpeed config in /etc/nginx/conf.d/

nano /etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf

And add these basic PageSpeed config

#file /etc/nginx/conf.d/pagespeed.conf
        pagespeed on;
        pagespeed FetchWithGzip on;

        pagespeed FileCachePath /run/shm/pagespeed_cache;
        pagespeed RewriteLevel CoreFilters;

Save the file, and test nginx config, after that, start nginx-pagespeed service.

/usr/local/sbin/nginx -t

service nginx-pagespeed start

**Note: This instruction has been tested under Ubuntu 14.04 LTS with nginx 1.8.0 from ppa:nginx/stable respository. The LTS is chosen because it has much longer support for server, and nginx 1.8.0 supports both spdy 3.1 and latest PageSpeed.

***Please share any thoughts or opinion or suggested correction if this guide didn’t work for you. Thanks!!

Recommended Reading