Crackstation wordlist is one of the most (if not the most) comprehensive wordlist which can be used for the purpose of dictionary -attack on passwords.
The wordlist comes in two flavors:
- Full wordlist (GZIP-compressed (level 9). 4.2 GiB compressed. 15 GiB uncompressed)
- Human-password only wordlist (GZIP-compressed. 247 MiB compressed. 684 MiB uncompressed)
Personally, I’ve already downloaded the full wordlist via torrent, and tested it against few PDF files (using pdfcrack) and UNIX password cracking (using John), all my test cases were successful. In my opinion, the wordlist is comprehensive for my need.
Since it looked like it took a significant effort to compile this wordlist, I rather advocate those who are interested to donate/buy the wordlist from: https://crackstation.net/buy-crackstation-wordlist-password-cracking-dictionary.htm
Rainbow tables is a form of attack method used to crack stored cryptographic hashes commonly used as passwords in various application.
It is similar to brute-force and dictionary attack that it will try to compare the resulting hash with the hash it attempts to crack, except in Rainbow tables, the possible matching hashes are all precomputed before hand, and it uses reduction function to double the lookup speeds at the expense of the storage space (time vs space trade off).
Project Rainbow-Crack offer downloadable binaries (free but not opensource) for GNU / Linux and Microsoft Windows operating system. The application package comes with several tools that can help in generating (rtgen), sorting (rtsort) and cracking (rcrack) sha1,md5 and NTLM hashes.
How to use rtgen, rtsort and rcrack ?
First before starting to crack sha1 hashes, we need to generate rainbow table with rtgen.
rtgen sha1 loweralpha-numeric 1 8 0 5000 6553600 0
rtgen <hash type> <loweralpha | loweralpha-numeric | numeric | mixalpha-numeric| alpha-numeric> <min length> <max length> <table_index> <chain_len> <chain_num> <part_index>
Then we need to use rtsort to sort the rainbow tables generated by rtgen.
Finally run rcrack to crack the hashes
rcrack *.rt -l hash1.txt
rcrack *.rt -h af8978b1797b72acfff9595a5a2a373ec3d9106d
For more examples to generate and use rainbow tables, please refer to Project Rainbow-Table Example
Secured Shell or SSH is a service to enable users to access remote system securely. However, SSH servers depending on password-based authentication might be vulnerable to dictionary-based (or brute-force) attacks by crackers.
Luckily iptables can be used with ‘–limit-burst‘ and ‘–limit’ option to reduce the number of attempts and connection that a cracking tool can make in a period of time.
For example, in order to limit an IP address to making only 5 connections per minute in burst of 2 connections, you can use this iptables rules:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -m limit --limit 5/minute --limit-burst 2 -j ACCEPT
This will result in the iptables will only allow up to 5 connections per minute with 2 maximum initial number of connections, which will make any brute-force or dictionary-based attack uneconomical/unfeasible for the server.
Read more about iptables –limit and –limit-burst in Linux Iptables Limit the number of incoming tcp connection / syn-flood attacks